Anemia - idiopathic autoimmune hemolytic
    
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Anemia - idiopathic autoimmune hemolytic

Definition

Idiopathic autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a drop in the number of red blood cells due to a problem with the body's defense (immune) system.

Alternative Names

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia; Anemia - idiopathic autoimmune hemolytic

Causes

Idiopathic autoimmune hemolytic anemia is an acquired disease that occurs when antibodies form against a person's own red blood cells. In the idiopathic form of this disease, the cause is unknown.

There are other types of immune hemolytic anemias where the cause may result from an underlying disease or medication. Idiopathic autoimmune hemolytic anemia accounts for one-half of all immune hemolytic anemias. The onset of the disease may be quite rapid and very serious.

Risk factors are not known.

Symptoms

  • Fatigue
  • Pale color
  • Shortness of breath
  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Yellow skin color
  • Dark urine
  • Enlarged spleen

Exams and Tests

  • Positive direct Coombs' test
  • Indirect Coombs' test
  • Elevated bilirubin levels
  • Low serum haptoglobin
  • Hemoglobin in the urine
  • Elevated reticulocyte count
  • Low red blood cell count and low serum hemoglobin

Treatment

The first therapy tried is usually treatment with prednisone. If prednisone does not improve the condition, a splenectomy (removal of the spleen) may be considered.

Immunosuppressive therapy is given if the person does not respond to prednisone and splenectomy. Imuran and Cytoxan have both been used.

Blood transfusions are given with caution, if indicated for severe anemia, because of the potential that blood may not be compatible and may bring on a reaction.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Adults may have chronic, relapsing disease, but in children the anemia is usually short-lived.

Possible Complications

  • Infection (from treatment)
  • Severe anemia

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your health care provider if you notice symptoms of anemia.

Prevention

There is no known prevention for idiopathic autoimmune hemolytic anemia, because the cause is unknown.

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