Share | - Comprehensive articles covering over 1,700 topics. The articles are organized by the disease, condition overview, symptoms, treatment, and prevention.

Drugs search, click the first letter of a drug name:
A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 8 | 9

Terms search, click the first letter of a term name:
A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

Online medical services

Medical dictionary is a searchable dictionary of medical terms from medicine and related fields. Search for medical terms with our medical dictionary.

Drugs & Medications Search our drug database for comprehensive prescription and patient information on 24,000 drugs online. - The Internet Drug Index for prescription drugs and medications.

PMS blog Premenstrual syndrome (PMS), PMS headache

Blue waffles disease, blog. Blue waffle infection, blue waffle disease pictures.



Disease Reference

Click on the first letter in the disease name:

| 4 | 5 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z




Kwashiorkor is a form of malnutrition caused by inadequate protein intake in the presence of fair to good energy (total calories) intake.

Alternative Names

Protein malnutrition; Protein-calorie malnutrition; Malignant malnutrition; Mehlä hrschaden


Kwashiorkor occurs most commonly in areas of famine, limited food supply, and low levels of education, which can lead to inadequate knowledge of proper diet.

Early symptoms of any type of malnutrition are very general and include fatigue, irritability, and lethargy. As protein deprivation continues, growth failure, loss of muscle mass, generalized swelling (edema), and decreased immunity occur.

A large, protuberant belly is common. Skin conditions (such as dermatitis, changes in pigmentation, thinning of hair, and vitiligo) are seen frequently. Shock and coma precede death.

The incidence of kwashiorkor in children in the U.S. is extremely low and only rare, isolated cases are seen.

This is typically a disease of impoverished countries, and is often seen in the midst of drought or political turmoil. However, one government estimate suggests that as many as 50% of elderly persons in nursing homes in the U.S. suffer from protein-calorie malnutrition.

Improving calorie and protein intake will correct kwashiorkor, provided that treatment is not started too late. However, full height and growth potential will never be achieved in children who have had this condition.

Severe kwashiorkor may leave a child with permanent mental and physical disabilities. There is good statistical evidence that malnutrition early in life permanently decreases IQ.

Risk factors include living in impoverished countries, countries in political unrest, and countries affected by frequent natural disasters (such as drought). These conditions are directly or indirectly responsible for scarcity of food which leads to malnutrition.


  • Failure to gain weight and failure of linear growth
  • Irritability
  • Lethargy or apathy
  • Decreased muscle mass
  • Swelling (edema)
  • Large belly that stick out (protrudes)
  • Diarrhea
  • Dermatitis
  • Changes in skin pigment; may lose pigment where the skin has peeled away (desquamated) and the skin may darken where it has been irritated or traumatized
  • Hair changes -- hair color may change, often lightening or becoming reddish, thin, or brittle
  • Iincreased and more severe infections due to damaged immune system
  • Shock (late stage)
  • Coma (late stage)

Exams and Tests

The physical examination may show an enlarged liver (hepatomegaly) and general swelling.

Tests may include:

  • Urinalysis
  • Serum creatinine
  • Creatinine clearance
  • BUN
  • Serum potassium
  • Arterial blood gas
  • Total protein levels
  • CBC (complete blood count) -- may show anemia


Treatment varies depending on the severity of the condition. Shock requires immediate treatment with restoration of blood volume and maintenance of blood pressure.

Calories are given first in the form of carbohydrates, simple sugars, and fats. Proteins are started after other caloric sources have already provided increased energy. Vitamin and mineral supplements are essential.

Since the person will have been without much food for a long period of time, starting oral feedings can present problems, especially if the caloric density is too high at first. Food must be reintroduced slowly, carbohydrates first to supply energy, followed by protein foods.

Many malnourished children will have developed intolerance to milk sugar (lactose intolerance) and will need to be given supplements with the enzyme lactase, if they are to benefit from milk products.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Treatment early in the course of kwashiorkor generally produces good results. Treatment of kwashiorkor in its late stages will improve the child's general health, but he or she may be left with permanent physical problems and intellectual disabilities. Without treatment or if treatment comes too late, this condition is fatal.

Possible Complications

  • Shock
  • Coma
  • Permanent disability

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Although very rare in industrialized countries, when kwashiorkor does occur in such places, it is usually a sign of child abuse and severe neglect.


Adequate diet with appropriate amounts of carbohydrate, fat (minimum of 10 percent of total calories), and protein (12 percent of total calories) will prevent kwashiorkor.

Email to a Friend

Your Name:

Friend's Email:

More about Kwashiorkor -
Asymptomatic HIV infection
Asperger syndrome
Antisocial personality disorder
Anxiety disorder
Acute MI
Meningitis - tuberculous
Ataxia - telangiectasia

Medical dictionary | Natural mosquito repellents | Dust mites pictures | Prescription Drug Information | new 401k rules | Hyperkeratosis pilaris treatment
© Copyright by 2006-2007. All rights reserved