Breath holding spell

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Breath holding spell

Definition

A breath holding spell is an involuntary holding of the breath accompanied by loss of consciousness in response to a confrontational situation.

Causes

Breath holding is seen in some normal children approximately 8 months to 2 years of age. It appears to be a reflexive response to fear, a confrontational situation, a traumatic event (for example: pain), or to being startled.

The child may make a short gasp and then exhale and cease breathing. Then the child rapidly becomes bluish (cyanotic) and may have several jerky movements resembling a small seizure.

The event is terminated by a momentary period of unconsciousness, at which time normal breathing resumes. The color improves with the first breath and the event is over. This behavior may be repeated several times per day or seen only on rare occasions.

Breath holding can be a frightening event for parents who may perceive it as a seizure or even cardiac arrest. Breath holding can be mistaken for a seizure, and seizures can be mistaken for breath holding.

A physician evaluation to determine that the behavior is actually breath holding is appropriate. Breath holding may also be a symptom of a rare genetic disorder, Riley-Day syndrome.

After recognizing the event as breath holding, the parent can simply await the event's natural conclusion. No undue attention should be given tothe child -- such attention might encourage a repetition of the behavior with future events.

Symptoms

  • Previous episode of breath holding
  • Exhalation followed by cessation of breathing (apnea)
  • Cyanosis (bluish discoloration of skin caused by lack of oxygen)
  • Short seizure-like movement (1 to 2 jerks)
  • Momentary unconsciousness

Exams and Tests

A history and routine physical examination may be done to rule out a physical cause of the breath holding. Because of a known association with iron deficiency, a blood test may be done. On occasion an EEG may be done, especially if it is difficult to differentiate the seizure-like movements of breath hold from an actual seizure.

Treatment

No treatment is usually necessary and affected children outgrow the behavior. If iron deficiency is found, iron replacement should be started.

Outlook (Prognosis)

This condition normally goes away without treatment before the child is 2 years old.

Possible Complications

Breath holding may be mistaken forseizures,and seizures may be mistaken for breath holding, so be sure to have your child evaluated by a physician.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your health care provider if your child exhibits breath holding behaviors, especially if this is a new behavior for the child or if the child does this frequently.

Prevention

No preventive measures are available. Counseling for the parents or behavior therapy for the child may be helpful for children that routinely exhibit breath holding spells.

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