Pica is a pattern of eating non-food materials (such as dirt or paper). This pattern should last at least 1 month to fit the diagnosis of pica.


Pica is seen more in young children than adults, with 10-32% of children aged 1 to 6 exhibiting these behaviors.

Pica can occur during pregnancy. In some cases, specific nutritional deficiencies, such as iron deficiency anemia and zinc deficiency, may trigger the unusual cravings. Pica may also occur in adults who crave a certain texture in their mouth.


Pica is the eating of non-food substances. Clay, dirt, ice, sand, animal feces, paint, and hairballs are just a few examples of what children and adults with pica have been known to eat.

Exams and Tests

There is no single test that confirms pica, but because pica is associated with abnormal nutrient levels and in some cases malnutrition, blood levels of iron and zinc should be tested.

Hemoglobin can also be checked to test for anemia


First, any nutritional deficiencies and other medical problems, such as lead toxicity, should be addressed.

Treatment emphasizes psychosocial, environmental, and family education approaches. Other successful treatments include mild aversion therapy (associating the pica behavior with bad consequences or punishment) followed by positive reinforcement for appropriate eating.

Medications may help reduce the abnormal eating behavior, if pica occurs as part of a developmental disorder such as mental retardation.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Treatment success varies. In many cases, the disorder lasts several months, then disappears on its own. In some cases, it may continue into the teen years or adulthood, particularly when associated with developmental disorders.

Possible Complications

  • Malnutrition
  • Lead toxicity
  • Infection
  • Bezoar (a hardened mass of the substance in the stomach)
  • Intestinal obstruction

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your health care provider if you notice that a child (or adult) has a persistent tendency to eat non-food materials.


There is no specific prevention. Adequate nutrition may be helpful.

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