Adenoids - enlarged
    
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Adenoids - enlarged

Definition

Enlarged adenoids refers to swollen lymphatic tissue in the back of the nose. The tissue is similar to the tonsils.

Alternative Names

Adenoids - enlarged

Causes

Enlargement of the adenoids may occur naturally (beginning during fetal development), or it may be caused by long-term inflammation.

Symptoms

  • Mouth breathing (mostly at night)
  • Dry mouth
  • Cracked lips
  • Mouth open during day (more severe obstruction)
  • Bad breath
  • Persistent runny nose or nasal congestion
  • Frequent ear infections
  • Snoring
  • Restlessness while sleeping
  • Intermittent sleep apnea

Exams and Tests

The adenoids cannot be seen by looking in the mouth directly, but can be seen with a special mirror or using a flexible endoscope through the nose.

Tests may include:

  • X-ray (side view of the throat)
  • Sleep apnea studies (severe cases only)

Treatment

Surgical removal of the adenoids (adenoidectomy) will prevent complications, and will cure complications if they already exist from enlarged adenoids. Antibiotics may be used to treat tonsil, adenoid, and sinus infections when they occur.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Full recovery is expected. Right-sided heart failure is reversible when the sleep apnea and airway obstruction are treated.

Possible Complications

Enlarged adenoids can cause health-threatening conditions such as chronic ear infections, sleep apnea, pulmonary hypertension, and right-sided heart failure.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your health care provider if your child has difficulty breathing through the nose. Call if the child has other symptoms discussed above.

Prevention

Treating throat infections early may prevent the adenoids from becoming enlarged from long-term infection and inflammation. Adenoidectomy prevents the complications of long-term airway obstruction.

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